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    Additional Needs
    A child that has a condition or disability that requires extra support. Children with additional needs may face challenges across a number of areas including their physical health, mental health or ability to learn.
    An intense feeling of fear or discomfort often accompanied by physical symptoms, such and a pounding heart, sweating, nausea, rapid breathing, dizziness, or numbness.
    Asperger syndrome (AS)
    A developmental disorder related to autism and characterised by awkwardness in social interaction, pedantry in speech, and preoccupation with very narrow interests.
    Attachment Disorder
    A broad term that describes disorders of mood, behaviour and social relationships arising from a failure to form expected attachments to primary care giving figures in early childhood.
    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
    A behavioural issue primarily in children, including symptoms such as poor concentration and learning difficulties
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    A group of behavioural symptoms that include, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. ADHD can occur in people of any intellectual ability. People with ADHD may also have additional problems, such as sleep and anxiety disorders.
    Usually present from early childhood, autism is characterised by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts.
    Autistic Spectrum
    Conditions such as Autism and Asperger’s operate on a spectrum, meaning the conditions cover varying degrees of severity.
    Autistic Spectrum Condition (ASC)
    A condition that affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour.
    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
    Autism and ASC is also referred to as Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
    The way in which a person behaves in response to a situation or stimulus.
    Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulty (BESD)
    BSED is an acronym used for children with Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties. Letters are sometimes rearranged into SEBD.
    Guidelines, rules or limits that a person creates to identify reasonable, safe and permissible ways for other people to behave towards them and how they will respond when someone passes those limits.
    Child Abuse
    There are four main categories of child abuse: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. All these categories are forms of harm. Each category can involve inflicting harm or failing to prevent harm.
    Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE)
    Child Sexual Exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse.
    It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or (b) for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator. The victim may have been sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears consensual.
    Child sexual exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through the use of technology.
    The process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought. Does not consider sensory or feelings based responses.
    To keep something secret, or private, except to those with correct authority to access the information.
    A serious disagreement or argument. Conflict can be verbal or physical.
    Acting in the same way again and again. Consistently is very important for children with SEBD needs. On a taxi journey this can include taking the same driving routes, sitting in the same seat, having the same driver and escort.
    When describing a child as in ‘crisis’ it means that the child feels as though they are in immense danger or difficulty.
    DBS Certificate
    ‘DBS’ stands for Disclosure and Barring Service. This is a check carried out to prevent unsuitable people working with vulnerable groups e.g. children. All taxi drivers are legally required to have a DBS certificate
    An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way a person eats, sleeps, feels about himself or herself, and thinks about things.
    A physical or mental condition that limits a person's movements, senses, or activities.
    The action of making new or secret information known. For taxi drivers, it is often ‘disclosing’ information that a child has told you to the relevant person/authority.
    Discriminatory Abuse
    Discriminatory abuse includes racist, sexist abuse or abuse based on a person’s disability, and other forms of harassment, slurs or similar treatment.
    Feelings of extreme anxiety, sadness, or pain.
    Duty of Care
    A legal obligation to always act in the best interest of the individual you are transporting.
    Severe difficulty in making arithmetical calculations.
    A general term for disorders that involve difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters, and other symbols, but that do not affect general intelligence.
    A developmental disorder of the brain in childhood causing difficulty in activities requiring coordination and movement.
    Is the repetition of phrases, words or parts of words. Echolalia may be a sign of autism, a visual impairment or a developmental disability. For example, if you ask ‘how are you?’ the response would be ‘how are you’ rather than ‘fine thanks’.
    Economic Austerity
    Austerity involves policies to reduce government spending and/or raise taxes in order to try and reduce government budget deficits.
    Emotional Abuse
    Continuous emotional harm to a child that causes lasting impact on the child’s emotional development. Emotional abuse can include repeatedly telling a child they are worthless and not good enough. It can also occur if a child repeatedly hears the emotional abuse of another. Any kind of abuse on a child will result in emotional abuse at some level.
    Emotional Wellbeing
    The state of being emotionally comfortable, healthy, or happy.
    The state of being emotionally comfortable, healthy, or happy.
    A neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or seizures, associated with electrical activity in the brain.
    A person, accompanying another for protection.
    Financial Abuse
    Financial Abuse includes theft, fraud, exploitation (including modern slavery), pressure in connection with wills, property or inheritance or financial transactions, or the misuse or misappropriation of property, possessions or benefits.
    A person with whom one has a bond of mutual affection. Friend's are attached to another by affection or esteem. Whilst you can behave in a 'friendly' manner towards a pupil you are transporting, it is important to realise you are not their friend.
    To be kind and pleasant to someone.
    GAD (Generalised Anxiety Disorder)
    Is characterised by excessive, exaggerated anxiety and worry about everyday life events with no obvious reasons for worry.
    The Children Act 1989 defines “harm” as ill- treatment (including sexual abuse and non-physical forms of ill-treatment) or the impairment of health (physical or mental) or development (physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural). (section 31)
    High functioning autism (HFA)
    A term applied to people with autism who have an IQ of 70 or greater. Due to their greater IQ they are deemed to be ‘higher functioning’ than other people with autism.
    Institutional Abuse
    Institutional abuse is the mistreatment of people brought about by poor or inadequate care or support, or systematic poor practice that affects the whole care setting. It occurs when the individual's wishes and needs are sacrificed for the smooth running of a group, service or organisation.
    Learning Difficulty
    Difficulties in acquiring knowledge and skills to the normal level expected of those of the same age, especially because of mental disability or cognitive disorder.
    Laws, considered collectively.
    An ambiguity or inadequacy in the law or a set of rules.
    Mainstream Schools
    Schools or academies which are not specialist provision schools.
    A language programme using signs and symbols to help people to communicate. It is designed to support spoken language and the signs and symbols are used with speech, in spoken word order.
    Material Abuse
    Material Abuse includes theft, fraud, exploitation (including modern slavery), pressure in connection with wills, property or inheritance or financial transactions, or the misuse or misappropriation of property, possessions or benefits.
    Mental Health
    A person’s condition regarding their psychological and emotional well-being.
    Mental Illness
    A condition which causes serious disorder in a person's behaviour or thinking
    Moderate Learning Difficulty (MLD)
    A child with a moderate learning difficulty will have a level of academic attainment significantly lower than their peers. They may have difficulty acquiring literacy and numeracy skills.
    Multi Sensory- Impairment (MSI)
    Refers to a child that has impairments with both sight and hearing.
    National Autistic Society (NAS)
    The leading UK charity for people with autism (including those with Asperger syndrome) and their families.
    National Health Service (NHS)
    The National Health Service (NHS) is the name of the public health services of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. The NHS provides a comprehensive range of health services, most which are free for people who are residents of the United Kingdom.
    Neglect is the repeated failure to meet a child’s basic physical and emotional needs. This can include providing a safe home environment, food and clothing. It also means failing to protect a child from any physical and emotional danger. Neglect is likely to result in serious harm to the child’s health and development.
    Non-verbal communication
    Communication without the use of spoken language. Nonverbal communication includes gestures, facial expressions, hand and body movements.
    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    People with OCD feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly. People with OCD are unable to control these thoughts or the need to perform these activities.
    Oppositional Deficient Disorder (ODD)
    An ongoing pattern of uncooperative, defiant, and hostile behaviour towards authority figures that seriously interferes with the young person’s day to day functioning.
    Organisational Abuse
    Organisational abuse is the mistreatment of people brought about by poor or inadequate care or support, or systematic poor practice that affects the whole care setting. It occurs when the individual's wishes and needs are sacrificed for the smooth running of a group, service or organisation.
    Panic Attack
    A sudden period of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
    Pecs stands for Picture Exchange Communication System. It is a unique alternative communication package for individuals with autism spectrum disorder and related developmental disabilities.
    Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)
    Delays in how a child develops including problems with socialising and communicating, trouble with routine changes, and repetitive movements and behaviours. PDD is no longer used by Doctors and has been replaced with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (ASD)
    Physical abuse
    Physical abuse includes but it not limited to hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning, scalding, drowning, suffocating. Anything that may inflict physical harm to a child.
    Physical Disabilities
    A physical disability is a limitation on a person's physical functioning, mobility, movement or stamina. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other parts of daily life, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep disorders.
    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    A mental health condition that is triggered after a person experiences or witnesses a terrifying event. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.
    Professional Relationship
    A professional relationship is an ongoing interaction between two people that observes a set of established boundaries or limits that is deemed appropriate under governing ethical standards.
    Psychological Abuse
    Psychological abuse is a form of abuse, characterised by a person subjecting or exposing another person to behaviour that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Psychological Abuse includes emotional abuse, threats of harm or abandonment, deprivation of contact, humiliation, blaming, controlling, intimidation, coercion, harassment, verbal abuse, isolation or withdrawal from services or supportive networks.
    The first stage in the child protection process. A referral is made about a child because something they have told you or you have seen has given you cause for concern.
    The way in which two or more people or things are connected, or the state of being connected.
    Risk Assessment
    A process of evaluating the potential risks that may be involved in a projected activity or undertaking.
    To protect from harm or damage with an appropriate measure.
    Self Esteem
    Confidence in one's own worth or abilities.
    Sensory Issues
    Issues that a child has whereby the brain has trouble receiving and responding to information from the 5 senses: Sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch.
    Sensory Processing Disorder
    A condition in which the brain has trouble receiving and responding to information that comes in through the 5 senses: Sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch.
    Severe Learning Difficulty (SLD)
    Young people with severe learning difficulties have very significant intellectual or cognitive impairments. Their cognitive and/or academic levels are normally at or below the 0.01 percentile. This has a major effect on their ability to participate in the school curriculum without support. Learners with SLD may also have difficulties in mobility and co-ordination.
    Sexual abuse
    Sexual abuse is forcing or persuading a child or young person to take part in sexual activities. These activities can be physical or non physical involvement. Sexual Abuse may also include using a child or in the production of, or allowing them to look at sexual images.
    Sign Language
    A system of communication using visual gestures and signs, as used by deaf people.
    Social Worker
    An academic and practice-based professional that seeks to facilitate the welfare of communities, individuals, families, and groups.
    Special Educational Needs (SEN)
    The needs of a child who has a difficulty or disability which makes learning harder for them than for other children their age.
    Special Educational Needs and Disability (SEND)
    As above, with the addition of a physical disability.
    Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO)
    A SENCO is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the school's Special Educational Needs policy. All mainstream schools must appoint a teacher to be their SENCO.
    A state of mental or emotional strain or tension that results from being subjected to negative or demanding circumstances.
    Teaching Assistant (TA)
    An individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities. Teaching assistants often help the main teacher by managing students with learning disabilities, such as ADHD or an SLD.
    Tourette’s Syndrome
    Tourette’s syndrome is a neurological condition (affecting the brain and nervous system), characterised by a combination of involuntary noises and movements called tics.
    A type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event. Trauma is often the result of an overwhelming amount of stress that exceeds one's ability to cope, or integrate the emotions involved with that experience.
    The action of keeping careful watch for possible danger or difficulties.
    Exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally.
    Vulnerable Adult
    An Adult (a person over the age of 18) exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally.
    The state of being comfortable, healthy, or happy
    Young Person
    In the UK, a person aged generally from 14 to 17 years of age.